There's also live online events, interactive content, certification prep materials, and more. Table 1.
What Are Special Characters?
Sometimes you will want to use special characters literally, i. This is called quoting. If you surround a string of characters with single quotation marks or quotesyou strip all characters within the quotes of any special meaning they might have.
The most obvious situation where you might need to quote a string is with the echo command, which just takes its arguments and prints them to the standard output.
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What is the point of this? As you will see in witn chapters, the shell does quite a bit of processing on command lines—most of which involves some of the special characters listed in Table 1.
Suppose you typed this:. You would get your shell prompt back, as if nothing happened!
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Make sure you understand why. Notice that Table 1.
A string in double quotes is subjected to some of the steps charactres shell takes to process command lines, but not all. In other words, it treats only some special characters as special. For now, though, you should stick to single quotes. This is called backslash-escaping the character.
In most cases, when you backslash-escape a character, you quote it.
For example:. Here is a more practical example of quoting special characters. The most common such command is findwhich searches for files throughout wrie directory trees. To use findyou supply the root of the tree you want to search and arguments that describe the characteristics of the file s you want to find.
For example, the command find. Esl blog ghostwriting service online can use wildcards in the string, but you must quote them, so that the find command itself can match them against names of files in each directory it searches.
The command find. You how to write special characters in a file with bash also use a backslash to include double quotes within a quoted string.
You can get around this limitation in various ways. First, try eliminating the quotes:. If no other characters are special as is the case herethis works. Otherwise, you can use the following command:. A related issue is how to continue the text of a command beyond a single line on your terminal or workstation window.
You charatcers do this in two ways: by ending speical line with a backslash, or by not closing a quote mark i. If you use the backslash, there must be nothing between it and the end of the line—not even spaces or TABs. Whether you use a backslash or a single quote, you are telling the shell to ignore the special meaning of the RETURN character.
You can continue a line as many times as you wish. Perhaps the most difficult thing about control keys is that they can differ from system to system. The usual arrangement is shown in Table 1.]